How Is HIV Transmitted?
semen and pre-seminal fluid
HIV transmission only occurs if the bodily fluids of a person with detectable levels of HIV enter the bloodstream of a person who does not have HIV.
HIV can enter the bloodstream through:
cuts or broken skin
mucous membranes, such as those found in the mouth, rectum, vagina, and tip of the penis
HIV is not transmitted through:
air or water
saliva, tears, or sweat
day-to-day contact, such as shaking hands, hugging.
Chances Of Contracting HIV
Vaginal Sex – Females can contract HIV through the lining of the vagina and cervix if a male partner’s bodily fluids, such as semen and pre-seminal fluid, carry HIV. Males can contract HIV from the vaginal fluid and blood through the opening of the penis, the foreskin, and small cuts and scratches or open sores.
Having a vaginal infection may also increase the risk of transmission.
Oral Sex – Mouth-to-penis oral sex may carry the highest chance of transmitting HIV, but the chances are still very low. Factors that may increase the chance of contracting HIV via oral sex include:
• sores on the vagina, mouth, or penis
• bleeding gums
• oral contact with menstrual blood
• the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.
Types Of HIV Related Pain
• Headache: Pain can range from mild to severe and may present as intense pressure, tightness, or a throbbing sensation. Low CD4 cell counts, infections, or other HIV-related illnesses can cause headaches.
• Joint, muscle, and bone pain: HIV can be associated with arthritis and osteoporosis, both of which can cause pain in the joints, muscles, and bones. This type of pain can also occur with aging.
• Stomach pain: Without treatment, HIV can weaken the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to opportunistic infections. These infections sometimes occur in the gastrointestinal tract, causing painful symptoms, such as inflammation and stomach pain. Some HIV treatments can also cause painful abdominal cramps.
HIV can damage the peripheral nerves, which can lead to a neurological disorder known as peripheral neuropathy. In people living with HIV, doctors sometimes also refer to this condition as HIV neuropathy.
• reducing the number of sexual partners
• getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
• avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
• if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
• following all workplace safety protocols